A pronunciation key in […] is provided for selected words marked in colored font; the syllable stress is indicated by a diacritical mark or underlining.

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Adhan: Word of Arab origin representing the Islamic call to prayer recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day
Agha: Turkish for a title used to designate a high-level civil or military officer
Akinci: Turkish word designating a member of the Ottoman light, irregular cavalry, specializing in raiding enemy territories
Allāhu Akbar: Arabic for “God is the greatest”
Al-Muntaqim: Arabic for “the Avenger”; one of Allah’s ninety-nine names
Al-Qahhār: Arabic for “the Subduer”; one of Allah’s ninety-nine names
Ar-Raḥīm: Arabic for “the Merciful”; one of Allah’s ninety-nine names
Asper: Ottoman silver coin
Asr: Arabic for “afternoon”; one of the five obligatory daily prayers for Muslims
Ayah: Arabic word used to refer to the smallest unit of the Qur’an, usually called a verse
Ayat: The plural of ayah
Az anyad picsaba, curva bitang: Hungarian popular curse, too vile to translate
Azap: Turkish word designating a member of the Ottoman light infantry
Beglerbeg: Turkish for “bey of beys,” “commander of commanders.” A beglerbeg was second in rank only to the Grand Vizier. The Ottoman Empire in the time of Dracula had two beglerbegs, one governing Anatolia, another Rumelia; see the Who is Who and What is What section of the book for these two regions
Bey: Turkish word signifying, among other things, lord, chieftain, emir, governor of a fortress or of a small province
Bismillah: Arabic noun used as a collective name for the sentence meaning “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful”
Boyar: Person of noble rank in Wallachia and Moldova
Büyük: Turkish for “huge”
Cachoolah [kah-choo-lah]: “Caciula” in Romanian.Traditional round and tall sheep or lamb’s fur cap worn by Romanian country folks in Wallachia, Moldova, and Transylvania
Caftan: a.k.a. kaftan; a front-buttoned coat or overdress, usually reaching to the ankles, with long sleeves
Catamite: Word of Greek origin designating a boy kept by a pederast
Clous: French for “nails”; word designating cloves
Cum te chiama: Romanian for “What’s your name?”
Cyrillic: Cyrillic Alphabet,a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek Alphabet for use of the Orthodox population in Europe
Dar al-Harb: The House of War; the name for the regions where Islam does not dominate, and where submission to Allah is not observed
Dar-al-Islam: The House of Islam; the name for the region where Islam dominates, and where submission to Allah is observed
Dervish: Word of Persian origin designating a Muslim believer following an ascetic path
Dhuhr: Arabic for “noon.” One of the five obligatory daily prayers for Muslims
Diyado: Bulgarian (дядо) for “grandfather”
Djellaba: Long, loose-fitting, unisex outer robe with full sleeves
Drache: German for “dragon”
Dracul [dráh-kool]: In the Romanian of 15th century Wallachia, the word meant both “the Dragon” and “the Devil”
Dracula [drah-kool-ah]: In the Romanian of 15th century Wallachia, the word meant “Son of Dracul,” hence “Son of the Dragon,” or “Son of the Devil”
Dulce bellum inexpertis: Latin proverb meaning, “War is sweet to the inexperienced”
Efendi: Also spelled as “effendi”; honorific Turkish word used in the Ottoman Empire as a title of respect or courtesy, equivalent to the English “Sir”
Ein Stern muss erst auf die Erde fallen: German for “A star must first fall to the earth”
Fajr: Arabic for “dawn”; one of the five obligatory daily prayers for Muslims
Fatihah: Arabic word (al-Fatihah) designating the first chapter of the Qur’an
Gewürznelken: German for “cloves”
Giaour [gya-oohr]: Turkish offensive term used to describe non-Muslims, particularly Christians
Gott sei Dank: German for “Thank God”
Grand Vizier: Second-highest official in the Ottoman Empire, outranked only by the sultan
Hamam: Turkish word designating a Turkish bath
Haraam: Arabic for “forbidden”
Insha’Allah: Arabic for “If it is God’s will”
Janissary: Turkish word designating an infantry soldier belonging to the Ottoman sultan’s household troops and bodyguards
Kiliç: Ottoman one-handed saber with a slight curvature and a sharpened back edge at the final section of the blade
Kyrie eleison: Greek for “Lord have mercy”
Lala [láh-lah]: In Ottoman tradition, lalas were experienced men who were assigned as tutors, mentors, and advisors to the young princes
Liniste [lean-y-shtay]: Romanian for “silence”
Madrasah: Word of Arabic origin designating any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious
Maghrib: Arabic for “sunset”; one of the five obligatory daily prayers for Muslims
Manichaeism: A religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the prophet Mani
Mein Retter, wer bist du?: German for “Who are you, my rescuer?”
Melee: Generally refers to disorganized close combat involving a group of fighters
Minaret: Word of Arab origin designating a tower structure associated with a mosque and used for issuing the call to prayer
Mosque: Arabic word designating a place of worship for followers of Islam
Muezzin: Word of Arab origin designating the person at a mosque who leads and recites the call to prayer (see “adhan”
Mullah: Arabic word designating a Muslim man educated in Islamic theology and sacred law
Musahib: Word of Arab origin meaning companion, advisor, friend; in some cases it came to signify the favorite of a prince or sultan
Mutti: German for “mommy”
Najis: Arabic for “ritually impure”
Nana [náh-nah]: Romanian title of respect used in addressing women from the countryside in Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania
Oma: German for “grandmother”
Opa: German for “grandfather”
Opinch [oh-peench]: “Opinci” in Romanian; the plural of “opinca” [oh-peen-kah], Romanian for traditional moccasin-style footwear used by peasants in Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania
Orthodox: Major branch of the Christian Church; not under the jurisdiction of the Vatican and the Pope
Ottoman: A Muslim inhabitant of the Ottoman Empire; subject to the Ottoman sultan; of any ethnicity; free person, or slave
Palinca [pah-lean-kah]: Traditional Romanian plum brandy
Pasha: A high title in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors, generals, and dignitaries
Persian language: An Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European languages
Peşkeş [pesh-kesh]: Turkish word designating diplomatic gifts given by an inferior authority to a superior one
Porcellana: Tuscan dialect for “porcelain”
Qur’an: Arab word for “the recitation”; it represents the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be the verbatim word of Allah; a.k.a. Koran, Al-Coran, Coran, Kuran, and Al-Qur’an
Salah al-Janazah: Arabic for “funeral prayer”
Schmetterling: German for “butterfly”
Semantron: Greek word designating a percussion instrument in the form of a long, wooden board used to summon monks to prayer in Orthodox monasteries
Ser: Tuscan honorific term roughly equivalent to “Sir”
Shahnameh: The Book of Kings; monumental Persian epic poem written in 10th century CE
Shaytan: Arabic for “the Devil”
Sipahi: Turkish word designating a member of the Ottoman heavy cavalry
Slavonic: Church Slavonic; of Slavic language derivation; the primary liturgical language of the Orthodox Church in the time of Dracula; it uses the Cyrillic alphabet; see “Cyrillic”
Sufism: A mystic movement defined by some scholars as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam
Tirendaz [teah-ren-dahz]: Word of Persian origin meaningmaster archer, accomplished bowman, skillful individual
Tuğ: Turkish for horsetail banner; there could be one, two, three, or four horsetails, depending on the dignitary’s rank
Verderer: Chief warden in charge of the royal forests
Vizier: Minister in the Ottoman government; there were up to four viziers, with the Grand Vizier being the most senior
Wudu: Arabic for “ablution”; procedure for washing parts of the body using water, typically in preparation for formal prayers
Zekaï, yayımı ver! Çabuk!: Turkish for “Zekaï,get my bow! Quick!”; see the Who is Who and What is What section of the book for Zekaï
Zoroastrianism: A religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, a.k.a. Zarathustra



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